Rabu, 24 Juli 2013

Concept of Geography

What are the subject of geography?

The term of geography firstly appeared in 176-194 BC by Erastosthenes. This term come from the word “geo” which means earth and “graphein” which means description. So geography means the “description of earth.”

Definition of Geography According to Some Expert

1. Bintarto : Geography is the science to describe, analyze, natural landscape, population and characteristics of life. 
2. Peter Hagget: Geography concern in ecology and spatial system (relates to man and enveroment). 
3. Strabo: Geography studies spacial characteristics in certain place and its relation with tha other place as a whole
4. IGI (Ikatan Geografi Indonesia): Geography is the science that studies similarities and differences of geosphare phenomena with environmental perspective and regional point of view in spatial context.

Geography has 10 Basic Concepts
1.  Object location will influence the value of the object
2.  Distance can influence the value of an object and time to access it
3.  Accessibility is influence by suitable facility
4. Distribution pattern of settlement is influenced by 
    nature codition
5. Morphology (landform) has strong influence on its 
    benefits of human life
6. Agglomeration of population tendn to follow their 
    activity and social status
7. The value of utility and benefits of a region is different 
    to each other
8. Interaction is mutual relationship between man and 
    environment which produces new phenomena
9. Areal differentiation is related to the differences of geographical phenomena between         one region and another  earth surface
10. Spatial interrelationship happens because of the differences interregion, therefore 
     interdependency axists.

Development of Geography Perspective
Divide in to five areas:
1.     Classic Goegraphy Perspective.
Claudius Ptolomeus, was an expert in thie perspective. In his book named Geographike Unphegenesis he explained that geography is a presentation of the earth’s surface on the map  
2.     Modern Geography Perspective (18th century)
According to Immanuel Kant, geography is the studies which focus on material object or phenomena and its spatial distribution.
3.     Geography Perspective in last 19th century
Friedrich Ratzel (1844-19040), a political geographer told that landscape as a result of climatic process which influences human life.
4.     Geography Perspective in the 20th century
Vidal de la Blache (1854-1918), his famaus point of view is always integrated to physical factor as well.
5.     The Newest Geography Perspective
E.A Wrigley (1965). All analysis methods can be used in geography study.

Orthodox and Integrated Geography
Divided in to according to its topic
1.     Physical geography studies human activity
2.     Human geography studies human activities
3.     Regional geography studies the region and culture
4.  Technique geography studied the technique sector in geography
5.     Philosophy geography studies the concept, cause, origin and low concerning to geography sector.

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